Periodontal disease is the most frequent cause of tooth loss among adults. It is defined as a plaque-induced inflammation of the periodontal tissues that results in a loss of support of the affected teeth.

This process is characterized by destruction of the periodontal attachment apparatus, increased bone resorption with loss of crestal alveolar bone, apical migration of the epithelial attachment, and formation of periodontal pockets.

Although the presence of periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis is a prerequisite, the progression of periodontal disease is dependent on the host response to pathogenic bacteria that colonize the tooth surface.

Nowadays, a growing body of literature has accumulated to investigate the association between bone diseases, periodontal pathogens and periodontal diseases.

The integration of pathogen-associated molecular patterns from microorganisms with their surface receptors in the immune cells, induces the production of several cytokines and chemokines that present either a pro- and/or anti-inflammatory role and the activation of mechanisms of controlling this and the related disease, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

This review focuses on the evidence and significance of bone host cell invasion by Porphyromonas gingivalis in the pathogenesis of bone disorders, as well as the different lines of evidence supporting the role of cytokines in bone diseases.



Ballini A, Cantore S, Farronato D, Cirulli N, Inchingolo F, Papa F, Malcangi G, Inchingolo AD, Dipalma G, Sardaro N, Lippolis R, Santacroce L, Coscia MF, Pettini F, De Vito D, Scacco S.

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